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Aluminum alloys with the addition of silicon metal are lighter and more stable. They are no less popular in the automotive industry in the manufacture of various parts, which are characterized by increased strength requirements. In most cases, engine blocks and wheel rims are cast using silicon metal combined with aluminum material.
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The most important selection criterion is the level of mechanical strength. This should be the starting point every time there is a question about buying.
We propose to consider a comparison of aluminum alloys by types of strength.
1. Alloys of low strength (indicator MPa 150-200)
Such alloys are used in a hardened or annealed form after applying cold deformation. The same types should include alloys AD31 and AD33 before heat treatment. After the treatment and hardening procedure and also as a result of aging, the alloy becomes more resistant and of high quality. They are very easy to weld and provide the best corrosion resistance. There are many types of European counterparts in Europe: AD0 is 1050, AMts is 3003 and so on.
2. Alloys of medium strength (indicator MPa 200-340)
Such alloys should include pure aluminum, as well as A0, AD0, AMTs, AMG (1,2,3,4) and magnalia A5. The advantages include quality and plasticity, while they are additionally divided into two types.
3. High strength alloys (index of MPa 340-400)
Strength becomes more sustained only after heat treatment processes. The result is workpieces that are used after aging and hardening. Among all existing alloys made from this metal, B95 is considered the strongest, but at the same time it has only one drawback – not too high resistance to corrosion. In this regard, the use of additional coatings, for example, varnished, is required to obtain a higher quality and durability. D16 is another type of alloy that is characterized by such features as a high degree of ductility and resistance to heat. European counterparts B95 are 7075, and D16 in the West is 2024.
An equally characteristic drawback of each alloy is poor quality weldability. Aluminum structures in the process of joining require rivets or bolts (depending on the load and purpose). High strength alloys can be used to make stable profiles that can withstand enormous loads.
AB or AD31 can be used in the process of building fences or sheds with increased durability. After natural aging and hardening, these profiles become more resistant to corrosive effects, are subjected to anode treatment and polishing. The manufacture of fences and other structures can be carried out using more expensive markings such as AMG 3 or 6.
These types of profiles are often used in car construction, in finishing processes or in the manufacture of power devices. Alloys in the form of sheets have shown efficiency in the development of banners, outdoor billboards, and when decorating trucks or refrigeration equipment.
Products are used in this industry due to the fact that they have excellent indicators of resistance, strength and durability of service. In addition, they are processed and welded, while being lightweight. In the process of manufacturing building structures, such alloys as AMG m AMTs in annealed, cold-worked and other states are in demand. The most plastic aluminum grades are M, AD, AMTSM, AMG2N 2, AMG2M, as well as AD31T, AD31T1, 1915T, 1915, AD31T5, AK8 and others.
It is also customary to use naturally aged and tempered T1 and T5 aluminum – artificially aged and not hardened. It is possible to do without processing.
When it becomes necessary to manufacture cold rivets, brands AD1N, AVT, AMG5PM and AMG2N are popular. Bolts require AMG5P and AVT1, welded joints can be carried out using wires 1557, etc.
When arranging fences and other similar structures, it is customary to use AMTs, AMG2, AD1 or AD31, and in welded structures of the supporting type and riveted products – 1925 and 1915.
Aluminum sheets and profiles are in great demand in many construction industries. Profiles can be introduced as pipes, corners, and there are corrugated sheets, channels and other products. In construction, sheets and profiles occupy 60 to 80 percent of all existing types of aluminum.
When developing structures of the bearing type, the AD31 or AMG2, AMC brands are most often used. Profiles of types AD 31 have many universal characteristics – weldability, excellent resistance to corrosion, strength and durability. They are used in construction, regardless of the complexity. If necessary, they can be painted with various types of powders and anodes.
Resistance to fresh and sea water is a major requirement in shipbuilding. It corresponds to aluminum alloys, which are also characterized by corrosion resistance. Thanks to their small size and weight, sailing vessels become lighter and more agile. It is very important to provide a high level of strength given that the ship is often faced with storm or storm. Alloy structures will be able to withstand the wave load of water. In addition, seawater is considered the most well-known causative agent of corrosion, therefore, aluminum can also effectively protect the structure from destructive effects.
The process of building parts of ships or other levels of marine use requires the use of aluminum profiles and sheets. They are necessary for the construction of yachts, ferries, ships and other types of floating units.
Materials used in the shipbuilding industry must meet the following criteria:
D16, B95 and B93 are the most used alloy grades in the industry. Lower strength alloys – AK 6, 8 or AB can also be used. In the process of manufacturing seaplanes, for example, those products can be used that are not subjected to heat treatment. These are AMG 5 and 6 grades – an average level of durability and strength in combination with the presence of anti-corrosion qualities.
AK 6 and 8 are forging alloys.
Alloy D16 is not particularly forged, while sheets and rolled components are produced under this marking. D1 is a no less popular brand, with the help of which propeller blades are made in helicopters, and AD33 and AB are the best solutions for spars.
For the purpose of high-quality and durable internal processing of aircraft, AMG1 and AD31 alloys are used.
In the manufacture of parts and components of the engine compartment and partitions of fire-fighting types, it is customary to use SAP1 or 1420.
Fuselages or cabins are processed using materials 1163 and D16.
Airplanes, in turn, are sheathed using alloys of grades D 16 and 19. They are artificially aged, which is necessary to ensure resistance to corrosion.
AMG6 is used for welding without the need for thermal treatment.
Aluminum welded structures are widely used in the process of making welded tanks, which are used in fenders, fuel tanks and other similar structures.
AMG6 is used for the purpose of welding without the need for thermal treatment, such grades as AMG 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and AMG 61.
The development of gasoline and oil pipelines for aircraft units requires the use of AMG grades 2 and 3.
Welded tanks, reservoirs and other parts that do not require maximum strength are developed using AMG3 alloys.
AMG 4, 5, 6 and 61 – are often used in the manufacture of external structures, as they have higher strength indicators.
Ensuring an even higher quality level of strength of plates and sheets of AMG 6 grade requires a work-hardening process of no more than 40%.
Systems AI, MG and ZN and alloys with thermal strength, as well as grades of the self-hardening type B92 C or 1915 guarantee higher quality indicators of resistance and strength compared to types Al, MG.
In order to manufacture welded structures that will be used at elevated temperatures, grades 1205, 1201, VAD 1, AK 8 are required.
For interior finishing work in aircraft construction, AD1 or AD31, AMTs, AB are used for decorative purposes – depending on the profiles.
Helicopter blades are made from AD35, AD 33 or AB.
Rivets require the use of hardened and aged markings B 65, B94 and D18. Each type of aluminum alloy must have properties of ductility and durability.
Piston engines and their parts are manufactured using aluminum alloys such markings as AL 31, 25, 30. In this case, deformed types can also be used – AK 9, 4, 2 and AK4 – 1. Component parts of jet engines require the use of AC AK 4, 4 – 1, VD17 and alloys of the AL-group. Such solutions are widely used in piston engine parts (from pistons to crankcases).
Most aluminum alloys meet all of the above and other requirements for the design of motors. In addition, pistons for engines are made with the addition of alloys after special processing: stamping, forging or hot deformation.